To From the 19th century , when the world of training began to take an interest in distance learning, teaching methods underwent significant changes. Institutions such as the University of London with its postal service or even the “universal school” and the “school at home” of Louis Eyrolles (S. Ben Abid-Zarrouk, 2013: p. 19) allowed students and workers to be placed under the same conditions as those who followed face-to-face training courses.
2Considering budgetary concerns and the massive influx of students, these courses, given at a distance, spread thanks to the media, as was the case for example in developing countries from the 1960s, all the more so as the level of teacher qualification was then insufficient (Depover and Orivel, 2013). Institutions, such as the Open University created in 1969, offered distance education to students, while other platforms were more oriented towards the labor market, notably the University of Phoenix.
The advent of information and communication technologies (“ICT”) turned this world upside down in the 1990s by being able to serve the greatest number of people with the least possible cost in order to save money. of scales. This was one of the concerns of public authorities in many countries.
Distance education, also called open and distance learning (FOAD)
MOOC is the acronym for massive open online course, in…(online courses open to all and massive), whether individually or collectively, without making a distinction between initial training intended for traditional students and continuing education intended for “listeners” in professional activity. The use of computer technologies and the global web in the field of training makes it possible to reach a maximum number of people, whether they are active or unemployed, such as those with a disability or those who have geographic or social nature. Also, the use made of them is becoming more and more user friendly and guarantees the possibility for everyone, even non-computer experts, to use these resources.
While correspondence training
This type of training was heavily used by the Center…, by nature asynchronous, was content to send documents, CD-Roms and other media to the address of the learner, e-learning makes it possible to exploit many more resources and information. This information is available from anywhere in the world and at any time using technological tools such as dedicated websites, forums, chats or video conferences. The student no longer sends his work materially to the training establishment for correction pending return by the teacher by the same route, he deposits it on a platform containing the various resources. The temporal and geographical distance between the student and the teacher no longer has the same constraint in the context of e-learning., even if it poses others. The teacher can download documents and course materials on the platform, accessible by the student who remains autonomous in his work and in control of his time.
6The emergence of this form of learning, commonly referred to as e-learning , is translated as “online teaching mode” (Glickman, 2002) or e-training. Online training, a term recommended in France, is one of the information and communication technologies for education (TICE). It is further defined as “ any training device that uses a local, extended or Internet network to broadcast, or interact or communicate ” (Ben AbidZarrouk, 2011). It therefore designates all the solutions allowing learning by electronic means. Historically, while the success of e-learning was becoming very important and experiencing exponential development in the United States
As of 2003, 81% of colleges in the United States…, in France this type of training was rather offered by large groups such as Renault or Crédit Agricole and, alongside the CNED, some pioneering universities. We are currently witnessing an explosion in the number of platforms and players.